1 / 28
Water molecules are polar because...
❮ prev next ❯
1 / 28
atoms to have a more negative end.
❮ prev next ❯

terms list

Water molecules are polar because...
atoms to have a more negative end.
Why are water molecules able to bond with four other water molecules?
The polarity of the water molecule attracts the opposite charge of the neighboring water molecules causing hydrogen bonds between them.
What are the four characteristics of water that are caused by the hydrogen bonding?
cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, and high heat capacity
How does cohesion and adhesion relate to the movement of water from the roots to the leaves?
The cohesion of the water is the attraction of between the negative and positive end, as water in the leaves evaporate, the attraction pulls more water molecules up higher into the leaves. adhesion is the property that water is able to cling to other substances, this helps with the continual rise of the water molecules.
Distinguish between heat and temperature.
heat is a measure of the total quanity of kinetic energy due to motion, temperature measures the intensity of the heat produced
Products of disociation of water and concentration in pure water.
They form Hydronium (acid) and hydroxide (base).
How does bicarbonates act as a buffer?
It acts as a buffer by disosciating when the hydrogen level is low (H2CO3) and bonding when the hydrogen is high (HCO3).
Four major classes of macromolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Distinguish between monomers and polymers.
Monomers are the small molecules that make up a Polymer. A Polymer is a long chain of monomers that are connected by covalent bonds.
Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides are sugars (usually a multiple of CH2O). Disaccharides are two monosaccharides joinded by a condensation reaction creating glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides are macromolecules that are made up of lots of monosaccharides connected by glycosidic linkage.
The formation of glycosidic linkages.
a covalent bond that is formed between monosaccharides because of dehydration reaction.
The difference between cellulose and starch.
Cellulose has the form b of glycosidic linkages (OH is up) and starch has form a of the glycosidic linkages (OH is on the bottom)
Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and steriods.
Lipids are componds that are group together because they have little to no affinity with water. Phospholipids are simular to fats but they only have 2 tails, not 3. Steriods are lipids with a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
Saturated Fats and Unsaturated Fats
Saturated fats do not have a double bonded carbon so more hydrogens bond and unsaturated fats have the double bond between carbon
Storages of engergy in plants and animals.
Plants have starch. Animals have fat which are able carry alot of energy even though it is bulky.
Distiguish between a protien and a polypeptide.
A protien is made up of polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations. A polypeptide is made up of polymers of amino acids.
The four major groups of amino acids and how they are grouped based on the R group.
The four components are an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and an r group. The amino acids can be grouped in hydrophobic or hydrophilic or they could be grouped as basic or acidic.
How does a peptide bond form between amino acids.
It is formed by a carboxyl group that is next to an amino group, a dehydration reaction occurs and a peptide bond is formed.
What determines a protein conformation and why it is important.
The amino acid sequence determines the conformation and it determines the function of the protein.
How is the primary structure of a protien is determined?
It is determined by inherited genetic info.
Two types of secondary structure.
An alpha helix that is bonded together with a hydrogen every fourth amino acid. A beta pleated sheet that are held together by hydrogen bonds that hold the backbone of the parallel pleats together.
Tertiary protein structure.
Disulfide brindes can reinforce the conformation of a protien, and weak bonds occur between hydrophobic sides.
Four condition in which protiens may be denatured.
Chemicals, excessive heat, being moved from an aqueous environment to an organic environment, and if the pH is altered.
Components of a nucleotide and how they are linked
It is made up of nitrogenous base, sugar, and a phosphate group. They are connected by covalent bonds that are called phosphodiester linkages.
Ribose and deoxyribose
The pentose that is connected to the nitrogenous base. The difference is that deoxyribose does not have an oxygen on its second carbon
Pyrimidine and purine
Pyrimidine are C,T and they are a single ring. Purines are G and A and they are double ringed
Nucleotide and Nucleoside
Nucleoside is a molecule made up of a nitrogenous base and sugar. Nucleotide is a molecule that has a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and sugar
3D structure of DNA
double helix


AP Bio: Chemistry of Life

126 items en en

AP BIO- Biochemistry Unit

84 items en en

Bio Exam 1

94 items en en

Bio Test One

71 items en en


CAM GYN Pattern and Symptoms Identification

25 items en en

EXAM 1: Patho Quiz 1-4, study guide, and review

89 items en en

Nursing Research Quiz 1

45 items en en

Forensics, quiz 2 Fingerprints

25 items en en