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Any abnormality of structure or function.
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Any abnormality of structure or function.
more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms.
Subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer.
Objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure. (EX - fever, rash)
The science that deals with why, when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted among individuals in a community.
Is the science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the txt of a disease.
Science and skill of distinguishing one disease from another using signs, symptoms, medical history, pt. evaluation
Orderly evaluation of the body and its functions
When the subject stands erect facing the observer, head level, eyes facing forward, feet flat and forward, arms down at sides palms turned forward
Body is lying face down
Body is lying face up
5 Regions of the body
Head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, lower limbs
Nearer to or the front of the Body (EX - sternum is anterior to the heart)
Nearer to or the back of the body (EX - esophagus is posterior to the trachea)
Toward the head or, the upper part of the structure (EX - heart is superior to the liver)
Away from the head or, the lower part of the structure (EX - stomach is inferior to the lungs)
Nearer to the midline (EX - the ulna is medial to the radius)
Farther from the midline (EX - the lungs are lateral to the heart)
Between two structures (EX - transverse colon is intermediate between the ascending and descending colon)
On the same side of the body as another structure (EX - the gallbladder and ascending colon are ipsilateral)
On the opposite side of the body from another structure (EX - the ascending and descending colons are contralateral)
Nearer to the attachment of a limb to a trunk. Nearer to the origination of a structure (EX - the humerous is proximal to the radius)
Farther from the attachement of a limb to the trunk. Farther from the origination of a structure (EX - the phalanges are distal to the carpals)
Toward or on the surface of the body (EX - the ribs are superficial to the lungs)
Away from the surface of the body (EX - the ribs are deep to the skin of the chest and back)
Is a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides
When a sagittal plane EQUALLY divides the body or organ into right and left sides
When a sagittal plane divides the body into UNEQUAL right and left sides
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Divides the body or organ into into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
Cross-Sectional Plane & Horizontal Plane also known as?
Passes through the body or organ at an angle between a transverse plan and a sagittal plane.
A cut of the body or one of the organs made along one of the planes
Spaces within the body that help protect, separate and support internal organs.
Name 8 Body Cavities
Cranial, Thoracic, Pleural, Pericardial, Mediastinum, Abdominopelvic, Abdominal, Pelvic
Cranial bones create this cavity which holds the brain
Contains the spinal cord
Three layers of protective tissue that line and protect the cranial and vertebral cavities
Chest cavity include the ribs, muscle of the chest, sternum, and thorasic portion of the vertebral column
Is located within the Thoracic cavity and is a fluid filled space that surrounds the heart and two fluid filled spaces called pleural cavities one around each lung.
two fluid filled cavities; one around each lung
Central part of Thoracic Cavity (from the between the lungs, extending from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphram)
All the thorasic organs except for the lungs themselves (heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and several large blood vessels.)
Is a dome-shaped muscle that seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
Extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal wall and the bones and muscles of the pelvis
Superior portion contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine
Inferior portion contains the urinary bladder, portioins of the large intestine and internal organs of the reporductive system
Organs inside both the thoracic and adbominopelvic cavities
Thin slippery, double layered membrane that covers the viscera within the thorasic and abdominal cavities and also lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen.
Parts of the Serus Membrane
Parietal layer = lines the walls of the cavities Viscera Layer = covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities.
Serous membrane of the pleural cavities
Clings to the surface of the lungs
Anterior part lines the chest wall, covering the superior surface of the diaphragm
What lies between the Visceral Pleura and Parietal Pleura?
The Pleural Cavity
Serous membrane of the pericardial cavity. ((The Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the ehart; the parietal pericardium lines the chest wall. Between them is the pericardial cavity, filed witha small amount of lubricating fluid.))
Is the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity
Organs that are Retroperitoneal (behind the peritoneal)
Kidnesy, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum of the small intestine, ascending and descinding colons of the large intestine and portions of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava
Far right side (top to bottom): Right Hypochondriac Region, Right Lumbar Region, Right Inguinal (Iliac) Region, Middle: Epigastric Region, Umbilical Regioin, Hypogastric (pubic) Region Left: Left Hypochondriac Region, Left Lumbar Region, Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
RUQ = Right Upper Quadrant, RLQ = Right Lower Quadrant, LUQ = Left Upper Quadrant, LLQ = Left Lower Quadrant
Techniques and procedures used to create images of the human body
Image of blood vessels
Urinary system (find kidney stones)
Barium Contrast X-ray
Shows abnormalities of the colon
MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The body is exposed to high energy magnetic field. Shows detals for soft tissue but not for bones.
CT - Computed Tomography
Formaly called a CAT Scan - Visualizes soft tissue and organs with much more detail
Sonogram - high frequency sound waves produced by hand held wand relect off body tissues
Positron Emission Tomography
PET Scan - Substance emits positrons is injected into the body. The scan shows where and how the substance is being used in the body
Radioactive substance in injected into the body and carried by the blood to the tissue to be imaged.
Visual examination of the inside of body organs or cavities using a lighted instrument
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