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Adaptations
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Features that assist an organism to survive in a particular habitat.
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Adaptations
Features that assist an organism to survive in a particular habitat.
Affector neurons
Neurons that transmit information about changes in external or internal conditions to the central nervous system. Also called sensory neurons.
Antidiuretic hormone
Homrone which increases reabsorption of water into the blood from the distal tubules and collecting ducts of nephrons in the kidney.
Antifreeze
Compound that when added to a fluid loewrs the freezing point of the fluid.
Axon
Exntension of a nerve cell along which impulses are transmitted away from that cell.
Cell body
Part of the neuron that contains the nucleus. Also called the soma.
Central nervous system
The part of the nervous system that is comprised of the brain and spinal cord.
Interneurons
Nerve cells found within the CNS which communicate between affector and effector neurons.
Countercurrent exchange
Arrangement of vascular tissues that enable heat to be transferred from a vessel carrying fluid from the core to an extremity, to a vessel carrying fluid from an extremity to the core.
Cuticle
Waxy outer layer on a leaf.
Dendrites
Branched extensions of nervve cells that transmit impulses to that cell.
Ectothermic
Organism whose body temperature fluctuates with its surroundings.
Effector neurons
Neurons which transmit information from the central nervous system to muscle cells or glands. Also called motor neurons.
Endocrine system
Sytstem of ductuless glands that produce hormones which are released directly into the bloodstream.
Endothermic
Organisms whose body temperature is maintained by internal metabloic sources.
Homeostasis
The maintentance of a relatively stable internal environment.
Homeothermic
Organism that is able to maintain an internal body temperature within a narrow range. Endothermic.
Hormones
In animals, chemicals produced in endocrine glands that are released into and transported via that bloodstream to other parts of the body where they act.
Hypothalamus
Region of the brain responsible for essential fuctions associated with the autonomic nervous system.
Kidneys
Excretory organs involved in osmoregulation.
Negative feedback
Feedback that tends to stabilize a process or conditions by reducing its rate or output when its effects are too great.
Neurons
Nerve cells.
Osmoregulation
The maintenance of constant internal salt and water concentrations in internal fluids.
Osmosis
The net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane without an input of energy and down a concentration gradient.
Peripheral nervous system
Sub-branch of the nervous system involving all nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
Pituitary
Endocrine attached to the hypothalamus. Influences the production of thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
Poikilothermic
Organims whose body temperature varies with the external environment. Ectothermic.
Tolerance range
Extent of variation in an environmental factor within which a species can survive.
Transpiration
Loss of water from the surfaces of a plant.
Xerophytes
Plants with characteristics that enable resistance to drought and life in very arid areas.
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