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function of an antagonist muscle
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works with prime mover muscles to produce smooth joint movement
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terms list

function of an antagonist muscle
works with prime mover muscles to produce smooth joint movement
Dynamic constant resistance equipment
barbell that is used in a biceps curl
Breakdown training
training in which an individual reduces the resistance lifted in order to perform two or three post-fatigue repetitions
most appropriate exercise to begin a strength-training session
plyometric training
method based on stretching muscles/jumping prior to contracting to recruit the myotatic reflex of a muscle to enhance the power of contraction
positive results of strength training
increase muscle fiber size, contractile strength, tendon tensile strength, bone strength, ligament tensile strength
muscle gain in men & women
after 2 months increase of 2-4 lbs of muscle, increase strength 40-60% and continues at a slower pace for 2 more months
impact of aging on metabolic function
decreases 5% every decade; strength training adds muscle tissue and increases metabolism
importance of working on muscular imbalances
reduce the risk of overuse injuries
isometric contraction
no movement; muscular force = resistive force
concentric contraction
muscle shortens; muscular force > resistive force
eccentric contraction
muscle lengthens; muscular force < resistive force
prime mover muscles
principally responsible for joint movement
antagonist muscles
produce opposite joint movement
stabilizer muscles
stabilize joint so movement can occur at another joint
fast twitch muscle fibers
high force, short duration, anaerobic
slow twitch muscle fibers
low force, long duration, aerobic
motor unit
single motor nerve + all muscle fibers it activates
all or none principal
all muscle fibers in a motor unit contract simultaneously and maximallly (NOT the entire muscle)
motor learning effect
gains in performance during initial weeks of strength training due to more efficient motor unit utilization
delayed onset muscle soreness; caused by tears in muscle/connective tissues
factors impacting strength performance
age, sex, length of limbs, muscle length, tendon insertion, muscle fiber type
high percentage in power lifters
fast twitch muscle fibers
way to measure one repetition maximum
most people can perform 10 reps @ 75% max
impact of genetics on muscular endurance @ a given % max resistance
ratio of slow to fast twitch muscle fibers governed by genetics and muscular endurance at % max resistance
categories of strength training
isometric/statics, isokinetic, dynamic constant, dynamic variable
adv disadv isometric equipment
+: small, less cost/space, greater time efficiency - : raises BP, specific positions required to increase strength, lack of training feedback
adv isokinetic equipment (hydraulic resistance machines)
+: speed regulation, adjust resistance, detailed perf feedback, reduced muscle soreness -: cost, inconsistent force regulation, lack of eccentric contraction
dynamic constant resistance equipment
barbells or free weights
dynamic variable resistance equipment (isotonic)
specially designed weight stacks/air pressure; amount of force is determines amount of resistance applied, like barbells BUT force changes throughout the movement
exercise selection
one exercise for each major muscle group
exercise progression
from larger ro smaller muscles
exercise speed
SLOW pace
exercise sets
multiple sets for maximum calorie burn
guidelines for resistance level
8-12 reps @ 70-80% max resistance
range of motion
progression plan
increase resistance first then reps
common strength training mistakes
too much resistance and poor form
purpose of warm up
prepare body and mind for increase energy and effort
purpose of cool down
allow blood flow to even out throughout the body
how to spot a bench press
stand behind bench and be ready to grasp barbell and lift it
impact of too much protein supplementation
places a strain on the kidneys
frequency of strength training to maintain muscle tone
1-2X brief workouts per week
anabolic steroids
synthetic derivatives of testosterone
strategies for overcoming strength plateau
reduce frequency/allow for longer recovery for tissue building; change exercises; vary # sets; change resistance/reps relationship; add breakdown sets; add assisted training
assisted training
trainer helps client perform 2-3 post fatigue reps
negative training
lower weights (eccentric contraction) that are too heavy to lift with a concentric contraction
slow training
10 second concentric lift ; 4 second eccentric lower ; 4-6 reps

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