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Alzheimer's disease
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deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning, progressive and debilitating, frequently occurs in person's 65+
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Alzheimer's disease
deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning, progressive and debilitating, frequently occurs in person's 65+
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
aka Lou Gehrig's disease; a severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups, usually beginning with the hands and progressing to the shoulders, upper arms and legs. Caused by decreased nerve innervation to the mm groups, specifically a motor deficit and does not involve cognitive or sensory changes.
anencephaly
an absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder
Bell's palsy
a temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed
brain abscess
a localized accumulation of pus located anywhere in the brain tissue due to an infectious process-either primary local infection or an infection secondary to another infectious process in the body (such as bacterial endocarditis, sinusitis, otitis or dental abscess)
carpal tunnel syndrome
a pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons, causing intermittent or continuous pain that is greatest at night
cerebral palsy
a collective term used to describe congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive, characterized by child's lack of control of voluntary muscles, due to injuries to cerebrum before, during or 3-6 years of life after birth.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
aka stroke, involves death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow (ischemia) to that area of the brain
degenerative disk
deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick
epilepsy
syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures
grand mal seizure
aka tonic-clonic seizure, an epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles
petit mal seizure
aka absence seizure, small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds
Guillain-Barre syndrome
acute polyneuritis (inflammation of many nerves) of the PNS in whcih the myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness, which usually follows a viral gastrointestinal or respiratory infection
cluster headache
occurs typically two to three hours after falling asleep, described as extreme pain around one eye that wakens the person from sleep
hematoma, epidural
collection of blood located above the dura mater just below the skull
hematoma, subdural
collection of blood below the dura mater and above the acrahnoid layer of the meninges
herniated disk
rupture or herniation of the disk center (nucleus pulposus) through the disk wall and into the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots
Huntington's chorea
an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons; progressive degenerative, beginning 30-40yo
hydrocephalus
abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s), congenital disorder
intracranial tumors
occur in any structural region of the brain, may be malignant or benign, classified as primary or secondary and are named according to the tissue from which they originate.
primary intracranial tumors
arise from gliomas, malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and from tumors that arise from the mninges
metastatic intracranial tumors (secondary)
occur as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast. Occur more frequently than primary neoplams
meningitis (acute bacterial)
serious bacterial infection of the meninges that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy
multiple sclerosis (MS)
degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it sclerosed (hardened) or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses
myasthenia gravis
chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe skeletal muscles weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity, considered to be autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites
neuroblastoma
highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, most commonly occurring in the adrenal medulla, wich early metastasis spreading widely to liver, lungs, lymph nodes and bone
Parkinson's disease
degenerative, slowly progressing deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms such as a stooped posture with the body flexed forward, a bowed head, shuffling gait, pill-rolling gestures, an expressionless, masklike facial appearance, muffled speech and swallowing difficulty, cause unknown, neurotransmitter deficiency (dopamine) clinically noted.
peripheral neuritis
general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects of being dependent on the particular nerve involved (trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, carpal tunnel syndrome)
poliomyelitis
infectious viral disease entering through the upper respiratory tract and affecting the ability of spinal cord and brain motor neurons to receive stimulation. Muscles affected become paralyzed without the motor nerve stimulation (i.e. respiratory paralysis requires ventilatory support)
postpolio syndrome
progressive weakness occurring at least 30 years after the initial polymyelitis attack, involves already affected muscles in which there is uncontrolled, uncoordinated twitching leading to muscle groups wasting away
Reye's syndrome
acute brain encephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the interal organs that may follow acute viral infections, occurs in children between 5-11, often with a fatal result.
shingles
aka herpes zoster, acute viral infection seen mainly in adults who have had chicken pox, characterized by inflammation of the underlying spinal or cranial nerve pathway (producing painful vesicular eruptions on the skin along these nerve pathways)
skull fracture (depressed)
broken segment of the skull bone thrust into the brain as a result of a direct force,
spina bifida cystica
congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar or first sacral vertebrae
meningocele
cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges and CSF
meningomyelocele
cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges, CSF and spinal cord segments, neurological symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of legs, altered bowel and bladder control. Hydrocephalus generally present.
spina bifida occulta
congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed. A dimpling over the area may occur
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower extremities, caused by severe injury to the spinal cord in the thoracic or lumbar region
tay-sachs disease
congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism, resulting from an enzyme deficiency, accumulation of a specific type of lipid occurs in the brain and leads to progressive neurological deterioration with both physical and mental retardation
trigeminal neuralgia
short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve
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